• Section Contents
  • The Lion Dollar: Introduction
  • The Rix Dollar and Silver Rider: Introduction

    Dutch Coinage Types Found in the American Colonies


    The seven United Provinces of the Netherlands each had the right to mint coins, these included: Holland, Overijssel, Zeeland, Gelderland, Groningen, Utrecht and Frisia. Additionally minting privileges were also extended to the region of West Frisia (which was part of the province of Holland) and the cities of Deventer, Groningen, Kampen, Nijmegen, Zutphen and Zwolle.

    Below are listed the minting locations for the major Dutch coinage types found in the American colonies: lion dollars, rix dollars, leg dollars and silver rider ducatoons. Also appended is a listing of other crown size silver coins minted in the Netherlands during this era. The dates reflect the first and last year of issue rather than a complete record of minting years.

    This page was researched and written by Kenneth J.E. Berger of San Diego, CA. in December, 1998.


    The Lion Dollar

    The lion dollar (Leeuwendaalder) was produced in six of the seven provinces, in the region of West Frisia and in five of the cities with minting privileges as follows:

    Lion Dollar Issues - Provinces

    Frisia:   1589-1653, as well an an undated issue
    Gelderland:   1589-1700/991
    Holland:   1575-1697, as well as an undated issue
    Overijssel:   1585-1701
    Utrecht:   1589-16972
    Zeeland:   1589-1658, as well as an undated issue3

    Lion Dollar Issues - Regions

    West Frisia:   1588-1713, as well as an undated issue

    Lion Dollar Issues - Cities

    Deventer:   1640-1698
    Kampen:   1637-1693
    Nijmegen:   1692
    Zutphen:   1690-1692
    Zwolle:   1633-1692

    Notes:
    1. Gelderland - The final issue is dated 1700 with 99 appearing under the 00.
    2. Utrecht - There is also a 1579 dated dollar called a (Unie Daalder/Leeuwendaalder). This coin may be a precursor of the Leeuwendaalder as it has the same lion reverse but the obverese contains a crowned shield rather than a helmeted knight holding a shield. Also, the weight of this coin was slightly less than the Leeuwendaalder, 24.75g versus 27.68g; however the fineness, .750, is the same for both coins.
    3. Zeeland - Interestingly, on the 1597-1598 Zeeland issues, as on many other Zeeland coins, the lower half of the lion is covered by ocean waves, because most of Zeeland was below sea level.


    The Dutch Rix Dollar

    The Rix Dollar (also known as the Rijksdaalder or Nederlandse Rijksdaalder) was produced in six of the seven provinces, in the region of West Frisia, and in two of the cities with minting privileges as follows:

    Rix Dollar Issues - Provinces

    Frisia:   1606-1661
    Gelderland:   1606-1699
    Holland:   1606-1693
    Overijssel:   1606-1699
    Utrecht:   1606-17001
    Zeeland:   1606-16712

    Rix Dollar Issues - Regions

    West Frisia:   1607-1683

    Rix Dollar Issues - Cities

    Kampen:   1655-1657 and 1676
    Zwolle:   1650-1656 and 1676

    Notes:
    1. Utrecht -The obverse of the 1673 issue varies greatly from all other Rix Dollars in that it contains the bust of William III rather than the bearded knight wearing a laurel wreath.
    2. Zeeland - On the obverse, the lower half of the the provincial shield which is held by the knight is covered by ocean waves because most of Zeeland was below sea level. On the reverse, the lion on the shield is not covered by waves because it is the shield of the United Provinces.


    The Leg Dollar

    The Leg Dollar or silver ducat (Zilveren Dukaat), having a number of varieties, was produced in all seven provinces, in the region of West Frisia, and in three of the cities with minting privileges as follows:

    Leg Dollar Issues - Provinces

    Frisia:   1659-1698
    Gelderland:   1659-1795
    Groningen:   1683
    Holland:   1659-1772
    Overijssel:   1659-1795
    Utrecht:   1659-1795
    Zeeland:   1659-1795 1

    Leg Dollar Issues - Regions

    West Frisia:   1659-1795

    Leg Dollar Issues - Cities

    Deventer:   1662-1698
    Kampen:   1659-1693
    Zwolle:   1656-1669

    Notes:
    1. Zeeland - As with the 1597-1598 Lion Dollars and the Rix Dollars from Zeeland, the lower half of the provincial shield is covered by ocean waves.


    The Silver Rider Ducatoon

    Silver rider ducatoons (Dukaton of Zilveren Rijder) ), having a number of varieties, were produced in all seven provinces, in the region of West Frisia, and in three of the cities with minting privileges as follow:

    Silver Rider Ducatoon Issues - Provinces

    Frisia:   1659-1668
    Gelderland:   1659-1792
    Groningen:   1682-1683
    Holland:   1659-1793
    Overijssel:   1659-1764
    Utrecht:   1659-1794
    Zeeland:   1659-17931

    Silver Rider Ducatoon Issues - Regions

    West Frisia:   1659-1793

    Silver Rider Ducatoon Issues - Cities

    Deventer:   1662-1668
    Kampen:   1659-1680
    Zwolle:   1659-1686

    Notes:
    1. Zeeland - As with the 1597-1598 Lion Dollars, the Rix Dollars and the Leg Dollars from Zeeland, the lower half of the provincial shield is covered by ocean waves.


    Other Crown Sized Coins from the Netherlands

    The provinces and the cities of the Netherlands issued a number of additional crown sized coins, some of which may have circulated in the American colonies in limited numbers. Certainly these varieties were not at all as common in America as the coins discussed above. A listing of the various issues in existence before or during the time of the New Netherland Colony is appended to give one a better indication of the diversity of crown size coinage minted in the area that came to be known as the United Provinces. The average weight for each coin type is given in grams, followed by the fineness of the silver and the weight of the silver. The dates reflect the first and last year of issue rather than a complete record of minting years.

    1) Philipsdaalder: 34.27 grams; 0.833 fineness (28.55 grams of silver); 1576-1581
    2) Arendsrijksdaalder: 29.03 grams; 0.855 fineness (25.69 grams of silver); 1577-1654
    3) Statendaalder: 30.47 grams; 0.750 fineness (22.85 grams of silver); 1578
    4) Bourgondische Kruisrijksdaalder (Cross Dollar): 29.38 grams; 0.892 fineness (26.21 grams of silver); 1580-1594 1
    5) Daalder van 30 stuivers: 29.03 grams; 0.885 fineness (25.69 grams of silver); only issued by Zaltbommel in 15822
    6) Friese Zilveren Rijderdaalder: 29.03 grams; 0.855 fineness (25.69 grams of silver); 1582-15853
    7) Wapenrijksdaalder: 29.03 grams; 0.885 fineness (25.69 grams of silver); only issued by Utrecht in 1584
    8) Leicester Reaal: 34.27 grams; 0.833 fineness (28.55 grams of silver); 1586 4
    9) Leicester of Unie Rijksdaalder: 29.24 grams; 0.888 fineness (25.97 grams of silver); 1586-1603

    Notes:
    1. The Bourgondische Kruisrijksdaalder (Cross Dollar) dates only include those issues minted in the area that was to become part of the United Provinces. This coin continued to to minted in the southern provinces of the Spanish Netherlands into the 1600's.
    2. The Daalder van 30 stuivers from Zaltbommel was issued earlier and was much heavier than comparable 30 stuiver coins issued by other provinces and cities. In addition to the 1582 dated coin there were also two undated varieties.
    3. The Friese Zilveren Rijderdaalder was only minted in Frisia. It is not considered the same as the Dukaton of Zilveren Rijder as the reverse is completely different. Additionally, the obverse differs from the silver rider series in that the rider is facing to the left rather than to the right and is holding a pennant rather than a sword.
    4. The Leicester Reaal was a continuation of the Philipsdaalder that had been struck under Spanish rule and which it replaced. The Reaal was only issued in 1586, although a few special presentation pieces were struck in 1587.


    References

    Hans M. F. Schulman and H. W. Holzer (eds.). The Coin Collector's Alamanac, New York, NY: Schulman and Holzer, 1946; Anonymous, Officiale Catalogus Zilveren Munten. Geslagen Door De Zeven Provinciën Der Verenigde Nederlanden 1576-1795, deel 1 & deel 2, vijfde editie. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij zonnebloem BV, 1981.


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